The three-year COral Reef Airborne Laboratory (CORAL) mission will survey a portion of the world’s coral reefs to assess the condition of these threatened ecosystems and understand their relation to the environment, including physical, chemical and human factors. CORAL will use advanced airborne instruments, including the Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM), and in-water measurements. The investigation will assess the reefs of Palau, the Mariana Islands, portions of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef and Hawaii beginning in 2016. With new understanding of reef condition, the future of this global ecosystem can be predicted.